The World is contracting with the rise of mobile phone technology. As some users are increasing day by day, facilities are likewise increasing. Starting with simple routine Hand sets which were used simply in making phone calls, mobiles have shifted our lives and also have grown to be part of it. Now they aren’t used simply for making calls however they’ve innumerable applications and may be applied to a Camera, Music player, TabletPC, T.V., Internet browser etc . And with all the brand new technologies, new software and operating systems are all required.
Operating Systems are suffering from a lot in last 15 decades. Starting from black and white phones to recent smart phones or mini computers, even mobile OS has arrived far off. Especially for intelligent phones, Mobile OS has significantly evolved in Palm OS in 1996 into Windows pocket PC in 2000 and then to Blackberry OS and Android.
One of the very widely used mobile OS these days is ANDROID. Android is a software pack comprising not the merely operating system but also middleware and primary applications. Android Inc has been set in Palo Alto of California, U.S. from Andy Rubin, Rich Miner, Nick Sears along with Chris White in 2003. Later Android Inc. was acquired by Google in 2005. After original release, there’ve been few updates in the original version of Android.
Features & Specifications
Android is a powerful Operating System supporting a Significant Number of applications in Smart Phones. All these applications make life convenient and higher level to its users. Hardware that encourages Android is mainly predicated on ARM architecture platform. A number of the present features and specifications of Android include:
Android is sold with an Android market which is an online software shop. It was manufactured by Google. It lets Android users select, and down load applications made by third party programmers and rely on them. There are approximately 2.0 shortage+ matches, application and widgets available in the marketplace for users.
Android applications are written in Java programming language. Android is available as open-source for programmers to produce applications which might be further employed for selling in the Android marketplace. There are approximately 2000-00 applications developed for Android with more than 3 billion+ downloads. Android relies on Linux version 2.6 for heart system services like security, memory management, process control, system stack, along with driver model. For software creation, Android provides Android SDK (Software development kit). Browse more about open source software.
All these will be the basis of all Android applications:
• Android applications are made up of one or more application components (activities, services, content providers, and also broadcast receivers)
• Each component plays a different role in the overall application behaviour, and every one may be activated individually (also from other applications)
• The manifest file has to announce all components in the application and should additionally announce all application requirements, like the minimum version of Android required and also some other hardware configurations required
• Non-code application tools (images, strings, design files, etc..) will include alternatives for different device configurations (like different strings for different languages)
Google, for software development and application enhancement, I’d established two competitions ADC1 and ADC2 for its many innovative applications for Android. It offered prizes of USD 10 million combined in ADC1 plus two. ADC1 premiered in January 2008, and also ADC two was started in May 2009. These competitions helped Google a lot in making Android simpler, more user-friendly, high level and interactive.
|Sr.No.||Feature & Description|
Android OS basic screen provides a beautiful and intuitive user interface.
GSM/EDGE, IDEN, CDMA, EV-DO, UMTS, Bluetooth, Wi-Fi, LTE, NFC and WiMAX.
SQLite, a lightweight relational database, is used for data storage purposes.
H.263, H.264, MPEG-4 SP, AMR, AMR-WB, AAC, HE-AAC, AAC 5.1, MP3, MIDI, Ogg Vorbis, WAV, JPEG, PNG, GIF, and BMP.
SMS and MMS
Android has native support for multi-touch which was initially made available in handsets such as the HTC Hero.
User can jump from one task to another and same time various application can run simultaneously.
Widgets are resizable, so users can expand them to show more content or shrink them to save space.
Supports single direction and bi-directional text.
Google Cloud Messaging (GCM) is a service that lets developers send short message data to their users on Android devices, without needing a proprietary sync solution.
A technology that lets apps discover and pair directly, over a high-bandwidth peer-to-peer connection.
A popular NFC-based technology that lets users instantly share, just by touching two NFC-enabled phones together.
Android applications are usually developed in the Java language using the Android Software Development Kit.
Once created, Android applications can be packed easily and marketed out either via a shop such as Google Play, SlideME, Opera Mobile Store, Mobango, F-droid and the Amazon Appstore.
Android powers hundreds of millions of mobile devices in more than 190 countries around the world. It’s the biggest installed base of almost any mobile platform and growing fast. Every day more than 1 million new Android devices are activated worldwide.
This tutorial has been written with an aim to teach you how to develop and package Android application. We will begin from environment setup for Android application programming and then drill down to look into various aspects of Android applications.
History of Android
The code names of android ranges from A to N currently, such as Aestro, Blender, Cupcake, Donut, Eclair, Froyo, Gingerbread, Honeycomb, Ice Cream Sandwitch, Jelly Bean, KitKat, Lollipop and Marshmallow. Let’s understand the android history in a sequence.
What is API
An API is a group of controls, functions, protocols, and items that developers may utilize to make software or interact with an outside platform. It provides programmers with standard controls for performing standard operations in order that they don’t need to write the code from scratch.
APIs are available for both the desktop and mobile operating systems. Even the Windows API, as an instance, provides programmers with graphical user interface controllers and elements, like windows, scrollbars, along with dialogue boxes. It also provides controls for accessing the file system and performing file operations, like creating and deleting files. Additionally, the Windows API includes networking controls which could be utilized to send and receive data within an area network or even the Internet.
Mobile APIs, like the iOS API, provide controls for detecting touch screen input signal, like tapping, swiping, and also rotating. It also includes normal graphical user interface elements, like a pop-up computer keyboard, an internet search bar, and a tab bar, which provides navigation buttons at the base of the screen. The iOS API additionally includes predefined functions for interacting with an iOS device’s hardware, like the camera, microphone, speakers or speakers.
It additionally provides a list of available functions and includes syntax highlighting for famous elements and controls.
While operating system APIs possess a solid collection of features, yet other kinds of APIs are a lot more basic. As an instance, a website can provide an API for web designers which allows them to get into specific information from the site. A website API could possibly be as simple as being a group of XML elements with a couple basic controls for retrieving the information.
What is App?
Program is short for “application,” which is exactly the exact same thing for a software application. While a program could refer to a app for virtually any hardware platform, it is most often utilised to describe apps for mobile devices, for example as for instance smartphones along with tablets.
The definition of “app” has been popularized by Apple when the company created the “appstore” in 2008, a year after the first iPhone was released. Since the iPhone and also app-store grew in popularity, the definition of “program” became the most standard way to refer to mobile applications. Programs for Android and also Windows Phone are now called “programs” as well.
Unlike applications for traditional PCs (known as “desktop applications”), mobile programs can only be obtained from downloading them from an online app store. Some apps are free, while some must be purchased. But, mobile apps are typically much cheaper than PC applications, and many are available for just 99 bucks. In actuality, most paid programs are somewhat less than $10.
Part of the reason mobile programs tend to be less expensive than desktop applications is that they are often less complex and require fewer funds to grow. Programs are limited by the capabilities of the mobile operating platform (such as iOS or Android) and therefore might not offer as much functionality as a desktop app. For instance, a word processor for Android will most likely have significantly more features compared to the usual word processing application for Windows. Most programs are designed to be small, fast, and straightforward. Unlike desktop applications, apps are intended to be utilized on the go and are developed to the advantage of a tiny touchscreen interface.
NOTE: Apple released the Mac Appstore in January 2011, which offers downloadable applications including Mac OS X. In this scenario, the definition of “program” describes desktop applications.
What Is Bash
It is a command language interpreter derived from sh which may execute orders input in a Command prompt and process text file input.
Bash (party) supports all of the controls of their original Bourne shell (sh), in addition to many more. It also includes features from the Korn shell (ksh) and C shell (csh), for example as control line editing, command substitution syntax, and control history. Bash also supports “brace expansion,” which is utilized to create related text strings. This operation provides an efficient method to hunt for filenames and rename multiple files. Newer versions of Bash encourage routine expressions (Bash 3.0) along with associative arrays (Bash 4.0).)
Bash was originally created by Brian Fox for its GNU Project and has been released in 1989. The celebration shell has been initially distributed with the GNU operating system and later became the default casing for multiple Linux distributions along with macos X. Present versions of Bash (versions 4 and 3) were manufactured by Chet Ramey and therefore are currently published by the Free Software Foundation, the very same organization that distributes the GNU operating platform.
What Is Beta Software?
Beta software means computer software that is undergoing testing and has not yet been officially released. The beta phase follows the alpha phase, but precedes the final version. Some beta software is simply made available to a select number of consumers, while other beta apps are released into the public.
Software programmers release beta versions of software in order to garner useful comments before releasing the final version of a program. They frequently provide web forums that enable beta testers to post their opinions and discuss their experience using software. Some beta software programs also have a built-in comments feature that enables users to submit feature requests or bugs directly to the programmer.
In most cases, a software developer will release multiple “beta” versions of a programduring the beta stage. Each version includes updates and bug fixes that were created in response. The beta phase may last anywhere from a few weeks for a little program to several weeks for a program.
For example, the fifth beta release of this next version of a software application might have the version number “2.0b5.” If a developer chooses not to list the specific version of a beta application, the version number could simply have the word “(beta)” after the program name, e.g. “My New App (beta).” This naming convention is often employed for beta versions of websites or internet applications.
Consequently, beta software often comes with a disclaimer that people should utilize the software at their own risk. If you decide to beta test an application, be aware that it might not function as expected.
What is API level?
API Level is an integer value that uniquely identifies the frame API revision extended by a version of their Android platform.
|Platform Version||API Level||VERSION_CODE|
|Android 4.4W||20||KITKAT_WATCH||KitKat for Wearables Only|
|Android 4.2, 4.2.2||17||JELLY_BEAN_MR1|
|Android 4.1, 4.1.1||16||JELLY_BEAN|
|Android 4.0.3, 4.0.4||15||ICE_CREAM_SANDWICH_MR1|
|Android 4.0, 4.0.1, 4.0.2||14||ICE_CREAM_SANDWICH|